HIV and AIDS: What story do the numbers tell?

Over time, these figures paint a more positive picture about HIV, the infection that causes AIDS. AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is the third and final stage of HIV following acute and chronic HIV infection.

Medications can stop or slow the progression of HIV and stop AIDS. But these drugs can only help people who know their HIV status and start taking them early. About 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV, but 13% of them don’t know it. That’s why guidelines say everyone should be tested for HIV at least once in their lifetime. People at higher risk of HIV infection should be tested at least annually, and sexually active gay and bisexual men should be tested every 3 to 6 months.

Annual HIV Cases in the United States

The annual number of infections in the United States has fallen by more than two-thirds since its highs in the 1980s, according to the CDC. In just four years from 2015 to 2019, new infections fell by 8%, from 37,800 new cases to 34,800. This brings the current national rate to 12.6 per 100,000 people per year.

HIV prevalence by age

Every age group continues to have HIV, but there are some differences between one age group and another. That number fell among 13- to 24-year-olds and 45- to 54-year-olds. But young people are less likely to know their HIV status. About 30% of new cases occurred between the ages of 25 and 34, and 16.5% occurred between the ages of 35 and 44.

Sources of HIV Infections

Each year, 69% of new HIV cases occur among gay, bisexual, or men who have sex with men.

About 2% of new HIV diagnoses each year occur in transgender adolescents and adults. Most of them were men who converted to women. Nearly half are between the ages of 20 and 29.

Heterosexual men accounted for 7% of new HIV diagnoses and heterosexual women accounted for 16%. While the total number of infected men is falling, the number of women has remained the same.

Injecting drug users account for 7% of new HIV infections, or about 2,500 cases per year. 4% are male and 3% are female.

HIV Infection by Race and Ethnicity

Although HIV prevalence among men of all races has declined, the number of HIV-infected African-Americans and Hispanics remains continues to be much higher than whites.

African Americans make up 13% of the population, but 40% are HIV-positive and 44% are newly diagnosed. Black men account for three-quarters of all new black HIV infections. In this group, the researchers attributed 82 percent of the infections to male-to-male sexual contact.

African-American women have the highest HIV infection rates compared to women of all other races and ethnicities. 91% of new HIV infections in this group came from heterosexual contact. Among trans women in seven major U.S. cities, African-American trans women make up 62 percent of those living with HIV.

Hispanic/Latino people make up 18% of the population, but they make up 25% of people living with HIV and 30% of new diagnoses.

These numbers tell the story: In 2019, of new infections among gay or bisexual men, 8,900 were black, 7,900 were Hispanic/Latino, and 5,100 were white. Among heterosexual men, 1400 were black, 530 were Hispanic/Latino, and 450 were white. Among heterosexual women, 3,100 were black, 1,000 were Hispanic/Latino, and 930 were white.

HIV Across the U.S.

Although HIV has been diagnosed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. affiliates, the amount of HIV varies by state and territory. different. The District of Columbia had the highest incidence in the country, at 42.2 per 100,000 people. The highest regional rate remains the South, at 15.2 per 100,000. The Northeast was 9.4, the West was 9.2, and the Midwest was 7.2.

Two-thirds of new HIV cases are in 10 states—California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Texas—and Most are located in metropolitan areas such as Miami, Orlando, and Atlanta. Georgia had the highest rate of any state, with 27.6 deaths per 100,000 people.

Deaths of people living with HIV

The number of people living with HIV who have died of AIDS in the past 25 years due to antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy number dropped sharply. People receiving ART lived an average of 71 years. But without testing and treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS and premature death.

Many people are diagnosed too late for ART to work. Current figures show that 15,400-15,800 people die each year from HIV infection. African Americans accounted for 43 percent of those deaths. About 73% occur in people over the age of 50. But more than half of all HIV-infected deaths are not actually from infection, but from diseases not related to AIDS, such as liver or cardiovascular disease.

< div>Ending the HIV Epidemic

CDC has an initiative to end the HIV epidemic. One goal is to reduce new cases by 75% by 2025 and then by at least 90% by 2030. CDC plans include more HIV testing, better care for people living with HIV, and HIV prevention with drugs like PrEP. PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, is a special drug used in HIV-negative people who are at high risk for HIV, such as people who have sex with someone living with HIV, inject drugs, or don’t always use condoms.

But not everyone who can benefit from PrEP can get it. For example, far more whites than African Americans are prescribed PrEP. Despite the fact that African American gay and bisexual men are in much higher demand. Only 16 percent of at-risk young adults ages 16 to 24 are taking it.

Another challenge is that many high-risk groups who start on PrEP do not stick with it, even if they are still at risk. This occurs most often in African-Americans and Hispanics, young adults and people with substance use disorders. If the CDC can work to overcome these barriers, HIV infection rates can continue to decline.